These policy briefs have been published as part of my work in the Directorate General of the Treasury


In France, the concentration of certain local air pollutants (in particular, fine particles, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) remains above regulatory thresholds. All sectors contribute to this, in particular heating and transport. Reducing this pollution requires a combination of economic incentives, regulatory measures and the development of alternatives, supporting low-income households and businesses whose competitiveness would be weakened.

Without proactive efforts, climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions could alter the framework of human life in unprecedented ways. The economic effects of climate inaction are difficult to predict precisely, but the scientific consensus is that there will be a strong negative impact, with a risk of unanticipated aggravating effects and strong inequalities by region and sector. The cost of reducing emissions would be lower than the cost of damage.

Outreach on this research

OFCE Seminar, 22nd September 2020